Stockholders, creditors, and private investors often need assurance that the financial statements accurately represent the financial position of a company.

Generally,  stockholders, creditors, or private investors have different levels of risk tolerance, so we provide three levels of assurance to meet their needs.

Audit - Highest Level of Assurance

An audit provides the highest level of assurance. An audit is a methodical review and objective examination of the financial statements, including the verification of specific information as determined by the auditor or as established by general practice.

Our work includes a review of internal controls, testing of selected transactions, and communication with third parties. Based on our findings, we issue a report on whether the financial statements are fairly stated and free of material misstatements.

An Audit allows you to...

  • Satisfy stakeholders such as banks, customers, suppliers and pressure groups, as well as the investing community, as to the credibility of published information.
  • Facilitate the payment of corporate tax, goods and services tax, and other taxes, on-time and accurately, thereby avoiding interest, penalties, and investigations.
  • Comply with banking covenants.
  • Help deter and detect material fraud and error.
  • Facilitate the purchase and sale of businesses.

Audits are not just for Public Entities

All public companies are required to have an annual audit, but some nonpublic entities must undergo an annual audit as well. These include local governments, not-for-profit agencies and other organizations receiving government grants.

Moreover, some financial institutions require audits of nonpublic companies based on the financing amount and/or the bank's assessment of the company's risk.   Also, companies with absentee ownership may order audits as checks of their management teams.

Review - Limited Assurance

Less extensive than an audit, but more involved than a compilation, a review engagement consists primarily of analytical procedures applied to the financial statements, and various inquiries made of your company's management team. If the financial statements or supporting information appear inconsistent or otherwise questionable, we may need to perform additional procedures.

A review doesn't require us to study and evaluate your company's internal controls or verify data with third parties or physically inspect assets. Rather, a review report expresses limited assurance in the form of the statement: "We are not aware of any material modifications" for the financial statements to be in conformity with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Reviewed financial statements must include all required footnotes and other disclosures.

Why might a business request a review engagement?   It can provide management, or banks, with a certain comfort level, utilizing a CPA's technical expertise without the work and expense of an audit.

Compilation - Lowest Level of Assurance

In compiling financial statements for a client, we present information that is the "representation of management" and express no opinion or assurance on the statements. Compilations don't require inquiries of management or analytical procedures. Instead, we rely on our knowledge of accounting principles and a general understanding of your business.

Banks often require compilations from an independent CPA as part of their lending process.

Which Report Should You Use?

Each type of financial statement report may suit specific circumstances, depending on requirements of the client's bank or other parties, as well as meeting  budgetary needs.

Understanding each report's strengths and weaknesses can help you choose the most appropriate one. Please call if you have questions about which type of report is right for you.

Understanding each report's unique strengths and weaknesses can help you choose the most appropriate one. Please call if you have questions about which type of report is right for you or complete the form below for a Free Consultation.

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